Full Guide on Software Development Life Cycle and SDLC Methodologies

Software Development Life cycle Model: Sofware Development Life Cycle Mthodologies

Software Development life cycle (SDLC)

Software Development Life Cycle or SDLC comprises steps that aim to produce the software of the highest quality in the shortest time possible while keeping the cost lower.

The life cycle is an extensive plan that covers everything from the maintenance, development, altering to replacing the software.

It improves the quality of every step of the way while also maintaining a low cost.

This is made possible through the execution of a plan that focuses on the shortcomings and deficiencies that typically occur in projects of the sort.

There are mainly six steps that make up the software development life cycle.

Every step is equally important and is paid the utmost attention. These steps include the following:


The first step in the execution of any plan is to plan.

Planning is more important than most people give credit to.

Before software is developed it is essential that the demands of the end-user are understood.

Getting input from the stakeholders is what is going to distinguish you from the rest in the game.

The question in focus in this step is what the end-user does not want in their software.

Once that is understood, the deficiencies that currently lie in the system can be worked around to achieve the goal.

Learning and understanding the weakness of a system is the first step to fixing the problem behind it.


In this step, the question in focus is the most efficient way to achieve what is being aimed to achieve.

The documented details of the software are turned into a design plan in this step.

This plan is then put up to the clients for review.

Any suggestions or recommendations are noted and worked on.

In case of failure, the cost of the project may go up exponentially and it can collapse eventually.


This is a more complicated step, in terms of technicality, where attention is paid to the coding.

It is all technical and not every department is involved in the perfect execution of this step.


In this step, the people at work look for the shortcomings following what was initially required by the stakeholders.

Defects are tested, and the issues are fixed to meet the demands of the client.


This is a crucial step where if there are any shortcomings in the specifications, the people at work make use of what they have got to solve the problem.


It is the rule of nature that hardly anything comes out the way it was initially planned.

Therefore to meet the needs of the real world, the software needs to be updated continuously.

This is all you need to know about SDLC to get an understanding of what it is and how it works.

SDLC Models (Methodologies)

Here let’s discuss models of the software development cycle and its types.

These are the 6 most popular software development methods which we are going to discuss.

These methodologies are used for planning to complete the work.

Waterfall Model

This is the first method of the software development life cycle model to be used in software engineering for the completion of project work.

In this there are phases. For example, you are working on new software development and for that, you have to follow these phases such as:

  • Requirement
  • Design of system
  • Implementation
  • Testing
  • Deployment
  • Maintenance

So these are the basic phases in the waterfall Software development life cycle model which you have to follow to complete your work.

Here you can not move to the other phase until the phase is completed.

Such as you are in the requirements analysis phase, so you cannot go to the design phase until the requirements phase is completed.

You can work on the next phase when your current phase is completed..Simple.

It is the oldest strategic method of SDLC.

The waterfall method easy to understand and it simple.

There is one issue is that you can not fix errors from the previous stage until you reach the maintenance stage.

So it will not work if you want flexibility in your project or you are working on a long or ongoing project.

V Shaped

V-shaped system development life cycle model is an extension of the waterfall.

In each stage verification and validation is an important key factor.

Also, the Testing of the project is planned in parallel with a corresponding stage of development.

Some Stages of V-shaped

  • Requirement and planning – allocating resources.
  • Specification analysis – here complete specification of the software will be done.
  • Design– specify how the function of the software will work to fulfill the design.
  • Detailed design– here define the algorithm and data structure for each architectural component.
  • The operation, production and also maintenance– In this stage what enhancement is needed and if there is any error than correction also done here.
  • Acceptance testing – checking of the entire system of the software.
  • Integration testing – check that modules interconnected correctly or not and also If there is an error then it will be fixed.
  • Testing of the unit– checking each module working as expected.
  • Coding– the transformation of an algorithm into actual software.

It is easy to use but it is an extension of the waterfall so that’s why the v-shaped software development life cycle model has some drawbacks such as it doesn’t handle concurrent events and dynamic changes in requirement.

Iterative Model

The iterative system developer life cycle model is also very popular.

Let’s understand it in very simple words.

It is also known as an incremental process model.

When any project comes in the organization they built the first developed version of the software.

After reviewing it if there is a need for changes in the software than a new version is created with a new iteration.

This process keeps on repeating until the development of the software.

The simple idea is that to develop a system through a repeated cycle, in smaller portions at a time (incremental), so that developers can add extra features or to solve the error according to the customer need.

Based on the feedback of the customer for further enhancement.

It also adopts the phases of the waterfall.

If there is any issue in it then It helps to solve the problem of the customer one by one.


  • Better testing of the project
  • An error can be fixed if there is any.

Spiral Model

The spiral is one of the methods of the system development life cycle and it is also very popular.

It is actually a combination of waterfall and iterative models.

one of the most flexible SDLC methodologies.

In Spiral each phase starts with a design goal and its end with customer reviews.

Software is developed in a series of incremental releases.

The spiral model is divided into framework activity and it’s also called a task region.

Basic phases in the spiral method such as

  • Requirements – To know the customer needs.
  • Planning– it consists of risk analysis and scheduling.
  • Modeling – designing and analysis work
  • Construction– actual coding and adding features.
  • Deployment– it consists of feedback and support.

As we have mentioned that above about the task region so let’s specify those task regions for better understanding.

The first task region is known as concept development.

The second task region is known as system development.

Third task region for system enhancement if required.

The fourth task region is about maintenance.

Big Bang Model

It is another method of software development life cycle (SDLC).

This is not used for any big project or long term project.

It is basically for a small project to complete the work without any planning.

In this big bang model, there is high risk and no planning.

Because of these reasons, it can be very difficult to complete the work efficiently.

It has phases such as:

  • Resources
  • Time
  • efforts

Agile Model

Agile model is a popular software development Life Cycle model and it is a combination of iterative and incremental.

It provides better quality software with a better development process.

This model provides better interaction as the developer, customer, and testers work together on the project.

it helps to create a better system.

The project can lead to a wrong way if the customer is not clear on the direction.


If you want to know which SDLC methods are best than choose any method which is suitable for your project.

If you have a long term project than agile and spiral can be a good choice.

but if it’s small than you can go for iterative, v-shaped and the big bang.

But trust me it’s totally up to you. So you have to choose according to your need.

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